WATER+ General Resources

CARE Water Resources

CARE Water Team Impact Report


What happens after CARE leaves? Is CARE creating the right type of changes through our work in water, sanitation and hygiene and water resources management (collectively known as water+)? What differences have we made in the lives of women and girls? In honor of World Water Day 2013, the first-ever CARE Water+ Impact Report addresses these and other questions.
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CARE Water Overview Brochure




CARE Water 2013-2014 Top Ten FINAL.jpg

2013-2014 Top 10 Accomplishments, CARE Water News

As the year winds down, celebrate what's been accomplished with the Water Team.

CARE Water+ News: A Year in Review

Take a look at all that the CARE water+ sector has accomplished in 2013, including the research we've done, the staff we've profiled and the projects we've completed.

CARE Water+ News- A Year in Review.pngIn English:

En Español:

En Français:

CARE Water+ Bulletins

Below are the latest Monthly CARE Water+ Bulletins, a recent communications pilot to share water-related events and resources that may be of interest to our global team.

Archived Bulletins

CARE's Water Team: Contributing to Transformational Change

Following a recent survey within CARE and with our key partners, the Water Team reviewed its approaches, priorities and structure. During our team retreat, we created a brief to summarize the feedback we heard and how we propose to change, to increase further the impact of CARE’s work on Water+, as well as our contributions to broader organizational priorities.

Climate Change

GWI East Africa

CRiSTAL is a project-planning tool that helps users design activities that support adaptation to climate variability and change at the community level. CRiSTAL stands for “Community-based Risk Screening Tool – Adaptation and Livelihoods.”

CVCA is a participatory analysis process developed by CARE which engages all stakeholders in understanding climate-related challenges, identifying adaptation solutions, and taking steps to ask on these solutions.

The Global Water Initiative (GWI) in East Africa is focused on the countries of Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The CRiSTAL and CVCA process is being done in all four countries and files pertaining to this process can be found here:

The Pangani River Basin Management Project is focused on strengthening Integrated Water Resource Management in the Pangani Basin and is working with GWI and the Climate Change and Development Project (CCDP) to mainstream climate change and to support the provision and governance of water resources to current and future generations. A summary report on these activities, as well as a complete report can be found below.

Summary Report:
Complete Report:

The Sustaining School Children's Access to Safe Water project is focusing on construction of sanitation infrastructure and hygiene promotion in Garissa District, Kenya. A summary report on these activities, as well as a complete report can be found below.

Summary Report:
Complete Report:

The Empowering Poor People to Manage Water project is focused on improved access to safe water and improved sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in northern Uganda where Internally Displaced Peoples have congregated and have limited access to these services due to pervasive poverty. A summary report on these activities, as well as a complete report can be found below.

Summary Report:
Complete Report:

The Vulnerability Sourcebook: Concept and Guidelines for Standardized Vulnerability Assessments
Commissioned by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and developed jointly by adelphi and the European Academy of Bozen (EURAC), this sourcebook offers a comprehensive tool for conducting regular vulnerability assessments. The Sourcebook provides a standardised approach to vulnerability assessments covering a broad range of sectors and topics (e.g. water sector, agriculture, fisheries, different ecosystems) as well as different spatial levels (community, sub-national, national) and time horizons (e.g. current vulnerability or vulnerability in the medium- to long-term). In the resourceful annex technical and adaptation experts will find a wide range of practical tools and templates.

Disaster Risk Reduction


Food Security

  • WASH, Food Security and the Environment - Drawing the Links

Gender and WASH

See Women and Water+ Page

Violence, Gender and WASH Toolkit

This toolkit was developed in response to the acknowledgement that although the lack of access to appropriate WASH services is not the root cause of violence, it can lead to increased vulnerabilities to violence in various forms. Additionally, effectively considering gender can also contribute to longer-term changes in attitudes and relationships between men and women, likewise reducing vulnerabilities to violence. This toolkit offers clarifying, practical steps that development practitioners can take to reduce these vulnerabilities by highlighting best practices, case studies, methodologies and toolsets.

The toolkit was developed by Sarah House, Suzanne Ferron, Dr. Marni Sommer and Sue Cavill, on behalf of WaterAid, with contributions from a wide range of actors. It was funded by the Department for International Development (DFID) through the Sanitation and Hygiene Applied Research For Equity (SHARE) Consortium and was co-published by a number of organisations, including CARE.

Violence, Gender and Wash Toolkit This toolkit is intended to clarify practical steps for development practitioners to effectively integrate gender and vulnerabilities to violence into WASH policy and programming. The folder entitled 'compilation volume' contains all the toolkit briefing notes, checklists and toolsets tied together into a single document with a simple cover. This version is for anyone who would like to print out the whole toolset in one go. The compilation volume does not include the supporting documents.

  • ARTICLE: Water Insecurity in 3 Dimensions: An anthropological perspective on water and women’s psychosocial distress in Ethiopia

Global Water Information

WASH and the Neglected Tropical Disease: A Global Manual for WASH Implementers.

Now available in French and English!
The manual serves as a guide to WASH practitioners working to implement, support, and sustain WASH interventions at the local level. The document will equip WASH-implementing organizations with the necessary knowledge to target their interventions to NTD-endemic communities, engage and promote collaborative monitoring of NTD health outcomes, and communicate for WASH and NTD policy change.
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In English:

En Français:

Hygiene and Sanitation

To contact country offices that are currently using VSLA, CLTS or SAA for WASH purposes, please see this excel document:

Village Savings and Loan Associations (VSLAs) for WASH purposes

CARE Rwanda is using VSLAs as an entry point to discuss water and hygiene-related topics with their communities. The VSLAs provided champions to mobilize the community and model appropriate sanitation and hygiene. To read more about their programs please view their page, or read this discussion with two senior officers of WASH programming.

CARE Honduras is currently integrating many tools to provide WASH services in their communities. PROSADE uses a VLSA approach (called Cajas Rurales) linked to (an adapted) CLTS approach – to link demand creation and supply.

To read more about their integration of water tools please read this summary of a discussion between Stephanie Ogden, Senior Water Policy Advisor, and Eduardo Gonzalez, Water and Sanitation Specialist: CARE Honduras.

Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)

CARE Mali is using traditional CLTS to end open defecation in villages. To learn more about the programs, please read this discussion with Sahada Traore, Project Director of WASHplus Mali.

CARE Niger is using it's WASH programs for the main goals of:
  • The creation of a favorable environments: everything related to the governance of water through the establishment and capacity building of management structures and advocacy for a change in practice and policy.
  • The right of access to water quality: creation and management of water points for all, including for women and other vulnerable groups. Including the right to hygiene and sanitation for communities
  • Equal access to water resources and construction of water points, especially the management mechanisms that ensure secure access of pastoral communities to water and pasture.
  • Decreasing pollution
  • Ending open defectation

To learn more about their programs, please read this discussion with Issaka Dan Dano, Program Manager, CARE Niger.

For documents in French, see below (Pour les documents en français, voir ci-dessous).


Menstrual Hygiene Management

Water Aid: Menstrual Hygiene Matters Resource Book

Menstrual Hygiene Matters resource book is an essential tool for improving menstrual hygiene for women and girls in lower and middle-income countries. Nine modules and toolkits cover key aspects of menstrual hygiene in different settings, including communities, schools and emergencies.

This comprehensive resource:
  • Brings together examples of good menstrual hygiene practice from around the world
  • Provides guidance on building competence and confidence to break the silence surrounding the issue
  • Encourages increased engagement in advocacy on menstrual hygiene
To download the modules and toolkits individually or in high-resolution, please visit: Water Aid: Menstrual Hygiene Matters

Other Resources

AFRIpads- A sustainable solution to menstrual management in Africa.
AFRIpads, a social business started in 2009, manufactures low-cost, reusable (washable) cloth sanitary pads in Uganda in order to curtail the high rates of menstrual-related absenteeism among primary and secondary schoolgirls in rural Africa. The pads are made by local Ugandan women, giving them the opportunity to generate an income and send their kids to school. Read more about the AFRIpads organization, the product, and its business model.

Resources from "Making Connections: Women, Sanitation and Health" on April 29, 2013.
This event brought together representatives from the WASH, gender and health sectors to present and debate critical issues linking gender, sanitation and health including violence against women and girls, maternal health and menstrual hygiene. Read the full report.

"Making the Connections: an Overview"- Presentation by Dr. Helen Pankhurst, CARE USA Senior WASH Adviser; CARE UK Voices against Violence Campaign

"Introducing the Menstrual Hygiene Matters resource"- Presentation by Therese Mahon, Regional Programme Manager South Asia at WaterAid and co-author of Menstrual Hygiene Matters resource.

"Reflections on Menstrual Hygiene Management"- Presentation by Rose George, journalist and author of The Big Necessity.


HAUPA Studies
Far too often, the flow of water from a new point is staunched in a few years. Different studies of functionality across Sub-Saharan Africa estimate that between 20% and 70% of installed hand pumps are not functioning, with an average rate of 36% non-functionality across 21 countries[i]. The early demise of these points wastes an estimated $1.2 to $1.5 billion dollars worth of investment[ii] and disappoints the communities that rely on these water sources.

How has failure become so rampant? Inadequate monitoring may provide part of the answer. Less than 5 percent of water points are revisited by the implementing organizations and less than 1 percent of water points are reported to receive any long-term monitoring. Other reasons for this systemic breakdown are not fully understood. Research into how specific factors impact sustainability, especially related to community-based water governance, is relatively sparse yet donors and implementers are increasingly recognizing the need to focus on the sustainability of their projects.


[ii] International Water and Sanitation Center

The Relationship between Governance and Sustainability in Community Water Systems
In community management of water services, four elements of good governance - participation, inclusion, accountability and transparency - are pivotal to the success or failure in the short run and are even more critical for long-term sustainability. To explore the relationship between functionality and sustainability, CARE USA developed a functionality, governance and finance snapshot tool for community-managed water systems. This paper shares the findings of the tool as applied to the Global Water Initiative (GWI) in East Africa in 2012.

PROPILAS: Proyecto de transferencia para fortalecer la gestion regional y local en agua y saneamiento
While WASH projects often focus on the construction of infrastructure, in Peru, CARE sought to address weaknesses in administration, operation, and maintenance of water systems as the root cause for the lack of sustainable WASH services. Since its inception in 1999, CARE’s PROPILAS project has progressed successfully to intervene on WASH issues at the community, local (district and provincial) and regional levels. PROPILAS has been able to test management approaches based on the principles of sustainability, efficiency and transparency, and to influence WASH policies and programs at a national level.

Urban WASH

WASH and Nutrition

See our WASH and Nutrition Page

  • USAID and WASHPlus: Integrating WASH into Nutrition Programming: Developed by USAID and WASHPlus, this guide outlines low-cost, high-impact WASH interventions and best practices (hand washing, treatment of storage and household drinking water, sanitation/feces management, and food hygiene) that can have a significant effect on preventing diarrhea and undernutrition, even in hygiene-challenged environments. It also provides a list of WASH-related questions to ask when conducting a nutrition assessment, and outlines strategies to integrate WASH into four primary nutrition-related areas: nutrition counseling and promotion, targeted health activities, community services, and maternal and neo-natal programs.

  • Clean, Fed and Nurtured: On May 2-3, 2013, Alive & Thrive, FHI 360, the Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing, Save the Children, USAID and WASHplus, brought together experts from water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), nutrition, and early childhood development (ECD) in an effort to join forces to promote child growth and development. They discussed, debated and explored cross-sectoral collaboration opportunities that would ultimately contribute to thriving children that are clean, fed & nurtured. The website provides all of the resources presented at the forum, including PowerPoint presentations outlining background information on the relationships between WASH, FNS and ECD; field program examples from Bangladesh, South Africa, Peru, Zambia, Nepal, Indonesia, and India; technical briefs; and webinars.

  • USAID Learning Lab: Community of Practice: The Nexus Between WASH, Nutrition and Food Security: Membership-based online forum provides interesting integrated programming opportunities that may strengthen health outcomes when compared to any individual programs. This community of practice was established to facilitate a dialogue between and among the staff at USAID and partner organizations. The goals are to encourage discussion around unanswered questions for integrated programming and to provide a clearinghouse for informative articles, events, and recent studies and datasets. The members of the community include USAID, implementing organizations, and other partners who are interested in improving our understanding of new and existing data and its implications for programs.

  • An Energy-Saving Development Initiative Increases Birth Rate and Childhood Malnutrition in Rural Ethiopia: Research article from PLoS Medicine which explores the relationship between improved access to water, fertility, and mother and child nutrition status.

Water Governance

"Water Governance" highlights issues in water scarcity and new approach to water management: integrated water resources management (IWRM)

  • The Relationship between Governance and Sustainability in Community Water Systems
    In community management of water services, four elements of good governance - participation, inclusion, accountability and transparency - are pivotal to the success or failure in the short run and are even more critical for long-term sustainability. To explore the relationship between functionality and sustainability, CARE USA developed a functionality, governance and finance snapshot tool for community-managed water systems. This paper shares the findings of the tool as to the Global Water Initiative (GWI) in East Africa in 2012.

Water Resource Management

A WASHplus Weekly Newsletters

A WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Carrying Water
A WASHplus Weekly: Focus on WASH and Climate Change
A WASHplus Weekly: Global Handwashing Day Addition
A WASHplus Weekly: Focus on WASH and Humanitarian Assistance
A WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Sanitation Marketing
A WASHplus Weekly: Focus on WASH for the Disabled
A WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Sludge Management
A WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Cholera Prevention and Control
A WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)
A WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Prevention and Treatment of Diarrhea

Links to Other Water-related Sites