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WASH in Emergencies
Read our Emergency WASH Network Newsletters below:
CARE WASH Newsletter - March 2016
CARE WASH Newsletter - May 2016
CARE WASH Newsletter - October 2016
CARE WASH Newsletter - December 2016
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Q&A Beth Megnassan – WASH EMMA in Southern Syria: the importance of market analysis and programming
How were you supporting the southern Syria team?
I have been deployed to help in the implementation of EMMA (Emergency Market Mapping and Analysis, see
). EMMA is a rapid market mapping and analysis tool that allows stakeholders to understand the main features and dynamics of a market system in a crisis in order for the decision makers to consider appropriate response options and to mitigate risks of disrupting markets. Using a combination of existing tools, from seasonal calendars to market systems maps, the EMMA combines an analysis of beneficiary’s unmet needs with market system analysis (markets’ core value chain, infrastructures and supporting services, and markets’ environment and rules) to offer a systemic and comprehensive understanding of the constraints and capacity of critical market systems. It has been applied mostly within the food security and livelihoods sector, but it is now increasingly being used for other sectors including shelter and WASH to explore options for market-aligned humanitarian responses. EMMA helps understand how best hygiene items and water supply can be provided in areas where the need, availability and affordability ratios are unbalanced.
Why is it important to consider markets in the WASH sector?
This approach helps to decide on best course of action to provide water in a much more convenient and affordable way. Before the crisis, most Syrian people were used to having access to high quantities ofwater. However, following years of conflict, displaced people and local host community are having to cope with a reduced amount of water and frequent variations in cost. Intermittent supply from piped water network schemes coupled with constant fuel shortages and irregular electrical power supply have increased the price of water per cubic meter as well as the cost of hygiene items. Since most people are now vulnerable and have reduced purchasing power, this is negatively impacting on the public health situation for communities across CARE’s programmatic areas in southern Syria. This EMMA WASH contributes to CARE’s understanding of the water market and other essential hygiene promotion items to inform future WASH programing.
Regarding hygiene items, EMMA helps understand how best they can be distributed in an efficient and cost effective way while safeguarding people’s dignity and avoiding to distortion in the local markets. This market analysis contributes to understanding how best to use the local market systems to provide hygiene items which are familiar to the beneficiaries, and are relevant to their individual household needs. .
Through a market-based approach, beneficiaries will have more freedom to choose what they want, when they want it, while suppliers will have more reliable markets to work with.
How does the EMMA toolkit work?
There is an EMMA toolkit that guides the entire process. Through key analytical questions and the use of an analysis software, markets are identified and then mapped. In an emergency, critical market systems are those that played, play or could play a major role in ensuring the survival and/or livelihoods protection of the target population. To address the central rationale for the design of the EMMA, namely, to better understand the water market system to inform the design of emergency water provision and hygiene promotion items response, the EMMA process involves the identification/selection of critical market systems for analysis. In the Syrian case, six critical markets were selected, these were:
essential hygiene items: soap, sanitary pads, baby diapers, buckets and jerry cans
From the critical markets selected, the next step is the development of key analytical questions. These are then transcribed into software programmes like KoBo or the ODK (Open Data Kit).
In the case of southern Syria, the methodology included:
Interviews with 100 households
25 focus group discussions with women from within the target locations
40 Key Informant Interviews to get information and views from the consumers
Interviews with 80 water tanker/truck operators and 30 private water source operators.
This process took 10 days, and answers were transcribed in the software. In addition, triangulation was done through reference to existing literature in terms of assessment reports from within CARE and from other WASH agencies.
CARE partnered with local agencies operating inside southern Syria to conduct the interviews and partner staff in Syria (24 people in total) who were trained remotely to use EMMA.
What were the results of the EMMA study?
The data collection part just ended, we are in the process of analysing the findings:
77% of the interviewed households are using water trucking as their main water source for drinking (about 18-20 litres for a family of 6 people per day and a further 250-300 litres per day for other domestic purposes such as cooking, washing, laundry). One cubic meter of water approximately costs 100-150 Syrian pounds (USD 0.47-0.70) from a monthly income of about 123 US$ which is mainly dependent on remittances. Locals only get the bare minimum they can afford. Strategies to cope with the lack of water include ‘spend money that was intended for other purposes’, ‘receive water on credit’, ‘drink less water’ or ‘avoid salty food’.
42% of the interviewed households do not treat water for drinking purposes. Instead they drink untreated water bought from trucks, as they cannot afford treated bottled water. A few agencies distribute water treatment products at household level but this is insufficient to cover the population in need. So the families result to boiling water, which again they say is too exp
ensive as they have to use fuel or gas.
Water truckers/providers indicated that only 41% delivered treated water. There is no regulation for water price and consumers have no control over it “owners charge for water as they wish”. In winter, prices decrease because of a drop in demand for water while in summer prices escalate and piped water networks provide less water at the household level (both in terms of frequency of delivery and total quantity delivered). It is during this peak period that piped networks break down more often and have lower pressure – this is inadequate to reach some locations and therefore more water is procured through the tankers/trucking system.
Other challenges regarding water delivery relate to the maintenance of the trucks. Spare parts are sometimes not available locally and so is fuel can be challenging to procure. Water truckers therefore have to rely on black market which provides bad quality parts that lead to break downs. Thus water cannot be delivered in time and in expected amounts.
Many supermarkets have their supply ready (including soap, detergent, sanitary items, etc…). However, these items are not always affordable because people do not have enough cash. For example, in the EMMA WASH study, 64% of the interviewed women said that sanitary pads were not affordable. The reason comes from the fact that hygiene items must be transported in to southern Syria from Government-controlled areas, or imported from outside the country: both of these supply options increase prices considerably.
How did people react to this intervention?
The findings will be presented in December and discussions will follow but there was a lot of interest in the field because EMMA for WASH had not been done before in the southern Syria context (not only within CARE but within also by other WASH agencies operating in the area.
Challenges of the remote implementation - what difficulties did you encounter while working on this project?
Language: everything needs to be translated from Arabic to English and back (to get findings from the data). This process was done using WASH local staff which meant that they were removed from their normal tasks. This also takes a lot of time!
Remote work: because the staff worked and was trained remotely on EMMA, there was a need to have a lot of confidence in people doing the job. In case of difficulties while in the process of enumeration, it is difficult to give solutions or address the problem on a timely basis.
What resources would you recommend in order to do this project efficiently?
There is an online course open to all and provided by cash learning partnership (CaLP) (
The Emergency WASH team is very keen to support other COs with the use of the EMMA Toolkit – we can provide advice and support either in country and/or remotely.
Blog: Damian Seal experience in Papua New Guinea
WASH Advisor Damian Seal was deployed to CARE Papua New Guinea, one of many countries that suffers from the impacts of El Niño in South East Asia. He was deployed at the end of March 2016 and stayed there for 7 weeks. The Australian government funded WASH programme was scaling up as Damian arrived. The CO had brought staff from within existing program teams and reorganized them to the different parts of the emergency response (the CO didn’t have its own long-term WASH programme). Early quick response activities such as distributing water containers and aqua tabs had also taken place.
The day he arrived was also the first day of their WASH team starting. Damian’s role was to advise the country office during the design phase, providing costs, designs, and timeframes, while also helping redesigns to incorporate community inputs. He worked closely with the new CO WASH manager.
El Niño brought two main consequences. One was the drought, with many rivers and springs having reduced flow or drying up, and forcing people to travel long distances for water and also caused contamination of water due the low flow. The Eastern Highlands, where Damian was located, had a steep and rocky terrain, making the daily search for water even more difficult. Clinics, which usually served several communities, had to close down because of their lack of water.
Another consequence was that the Upper Highlands experienced hard frost, which damaged many crops and impacted on household livelihoods. This placed an additional challenge for the most vulnerable households to be able to afford hygiene items such as soap, and meant that the distribution of key hygiene items became important.
By the time Damian arrived, other agencies working in PNG had established work plans to address a number of the WASH priorities. However, CARE’s intervention was still crucial given that capacity from local government had been stretched by the challenges of El Nino. Other challenges included ascertaining a reliable estimate of the number of affected people – official records were unreliable so this entailed the team checking at the household level, and accessibility of villages – many were only accessible by walking.
Within the area there are a lot of streams and springs, so first the team had to find a viable water source. Often these were found a number of kilometers away, across mountainous terrain, meaning that a system would have to be put in place to deliver the water down to the local communities. If possible, taps would be installed at local clinics and schools. Finally, the WASH team worked with the community and local leaders to establish the best way to give equitable access to every community that the pipeline serves. One pipeline can serve several communities but the topography of the land makes it difficult to design.
Damian worked with the team to design gravity water systems that after installation, would have minimal costs other than regular maintenance. The idea was to establish a more reliable and cleaner water source. Inter-communal issues were addressed in focal group discussions, making it a community-based programme, where the community is involved in what was being done, with committees that would take part on the implementation of the project. Ensuring local ownership from the start was a crucial feature of the project. Other aspects were also covered, such as the installation of double taps with different heights for adults and children.
As the program had limited funding, it was impossible to install a tap in every household, although the installations considered demographic and geographic layout so that beneficiaries could easily access the water.
Following Damian’s deployment, the country office will continue the delivery of the WASAH program, and look for options for transition of the work into longer-term programmes. One area of focus for future work is on school sanitation, as the lack of sex-segregated latrines in local schools was deterring local children – especially girls – from attending school.
Q&A Beth Megnassan – Emergency WASH and Gender
Beth Megnassan, Emergency WASH and Gender Advisor, talks about CARE’s response to droughts in Vietnam and Cambodia, where she was deployed in May.
How long were you there?
I was deployed for 5 days in Vietnam to learn what the local team was doing, what the response was about, and then give advice based on what has been addressed. In Cambodia, I was deployed for 2 weeks, looking at WASH in schools programmes, especially during the drought season.
What did you see in these places?
In Cambodia – in the province of Ratanakiri - main water sources such as wells, ponds, rivers and waterfalls had dried out, so there was a lack of water for personal consumption (drinking, preparing food, household and hygiene needs). There were specific hygiene concerns for women and children. The pumps were breaking down. Traditional water wells had dried up. And therefore it was very difficult for children to be in school and to concentrate, as many spent time looking for water. For the communities, the lack of water was difficult as well. Their food rations had also gone down. CARE was supporting with community water pods – small pods dug to capture water for later usage in the dry season. A similar thing was happening in Vietnam.
In Soc Trang, Vietnan, the assessment revealed that before the drought, residents used water from wells, rivers or ponds to wash and bathe. Normally they stored water in tanks some days before use (to wait for sediment to settle). In the assessment in these areas, local people generally used rain water for cooking and drinking, and water from canals and drilled wells for daily lives (bathing and washing). Since the drought from late 2015, the major water sources that people could access included (a) drilled wells either from their house or neighbors; (b) water from canals or (c) water supplying system and trucked water from provincial water supplying center, while water for drinking and cooking had to be bought through bottled water that was sold locally. As the drought worsened, the majority of wells dried up or did not provide good quality source of water. Some sources were smelly and impure; some contained high levels of alkaline, while some were salinized - especially river water and wells which become salinized in certain months.
Who are affected the most in these areas?
In both cases, the most affected are women and children, especially those who are in school. As said, the children had to spend more time searching for water. However, the situation is even worse for girls, as they cannot shower and use toilets in Ratanakiri Province in Cambodia. In Soc Trang Province, Vietnam, most of the affected people were groups of near poor, poor and ethnic Khmer households comprising poor women and children, the elderly and those living with disabilities. These households could not afford to buy bottled water, as a 20l bottle was sold at 12,000 VND (without the bottle) but the price could sometimes go up to 20,000 VND per bottle.Women are dependent on husbands or sons for buying water because they cannot ride motorbikes, especially in rough and small road. Women who live alone (single ones or with husbands living away) have to spend more on transportation fees for the water.
Water Bottle – Soc Trang Province Overhanging toilet polluting water – Soc Trang
One household (with four members on average) may use up to one bottle every 2.5 days. There are families who previously bought bottled water on credit, but could no longer afford to pay, and were unable buy the next one due to unpaid debt of previous bottle. As a consequence, such families started using water from polluted sources.
How many people are being affected?
In Cambodia, the whole province of Ratanakiri was affected. In In Soc Trang Province, Vietnam, a about 850,000 people were affected by the droughts cause by El Niño.
What is CARE doing?
CARE already had a programme in Cambodia, supporting communities with rehabilitation of their water supply systems – for example, where there were broken down boreholes, CARE was helping to repair them so the local community could have access to water. Community water pods were also fenced, and mud was dug out so water from rainfall could be kept. CARE did hygiene and awareness promotion in the villages. In Vietnam, CARE did an Emergency Response Funds (
) proposal for the province of Soc Trang drought response. A detailed assessment to understand the current needs was carried out in the Province, out of which CARE’s emergency activities included provision of water treatment tablets; trucked water to central collection points; distribution of water containers and jerry cans; establishing one public water collection point by connecting new pipelines with the public water supplying system; and delivering an information campaign to raise awareness of local people about personal hygiene.
Beneficiaries with their WASH kit in Soc Trang Province
What are the WASH challenges that El Niño and drought have brought?
In Soc Trang Province, Vietnam, about 50-60% of households use rain water, water from wells or pond water which are influenced in varying degrees of water shortage due to drought and saline intrusion. This means that a lot of water systems and boreholes could not be used for domestic water purposes as their water was salted or polluted, and many had to walk up to six kilometres to access water piped water. The challenge was to supply these people with clean water. The most affected communities were located far and were hard to reach, so CARE has proposed to partner with other organizations to engage in longer term WASH Programme to achieve an impact in those communities.
Polluted water sources – Soc Trang Province
In Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, community VN6 pumps are often broken thereby needing maintenance as long term solutions are sought; there is a risk of water-borne diseases due to open water sources and also that even though community members were using the community ponds they were also still using traditional wells for drinking water and streams for washing and bathing despite poor quality. Intensive hygiene promotion awareness campaigns were urgently needed and of utmost importance in this province.
Q & A CARE Balkans Response
By CARE WASH Team | April 20, 2016
CARE is currently carrying out WASH response for refugees and migrants crossing through on their way to Europe, which includes construction of sanitation facilities in Serbia with UNHCR and the local authorities. Here
, Emergency Response Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) specialist, talked about her role in coordinating CARE’s WASH response.
What are usually the biggest WASH issues in a humanitarian emergency?
Water and sanitation is totally fundamental. The need for it never stops, and its life or death, so in emergency the first thing you have to do is see: Is water available? Is sanitation available? The focus is often on water because it’s a very tangible thing, but the bigger problem in an emergency is more often sanitation. When you have a lot of people concentrated in one area, whether transiting through, in a camp, or after a natural disaster, they still have to poo somewhere! If that waste is not properly managed and disposed of then it can cause illness, and when you have big populations that are displaced that illness can move very quickly among people.
What is the situation like on the ground in Serbia at the moment?
Half way through my deployment countries began closing their borders. We had been planning for services that would provide water and sanitation for people transiting through Serbia who were staying for only a few hours. When the borders closed it had knock on effects and we went from seeing 1-2,000 people coming through a day to a total of 2-2,500 people who became trapped within the country. Our response went from trying to deal with lots of people for a short amount of time to quite a few people for a longer period.
The one thing that really shocked me was the numbers of children among those crossing–I had no idea that so many families were making the journey.
How has this changed CARE’s work and plans?
It has been very challenging. There are many elements of this crisis that are entirely out of our control; such as countries closing their borders. When things change in this context, they change very quickly.
The assumption at the moment is that people will be staying from anywhere between 1-2 months and 6 months, but also that they may start to be moved to different locations within the country that are better suited for longer term accommodation. Maybe people will also get asylum within Serbia itself. These are all questions that are being worked out at the moment and will affect how we do our programming.
What is CARE doing?
From a WASH perspective we have now begun to focus more on in depth hygiene items and hygiene promotion. This is hard to do when people are transiting through and don’t want to carry too many things with them, but now people are staying a bit longer they need things like soap, shampoo and sanitary pads for women as well as better general facilities for washing and showering. Much of this is also about maintaining people’s dignity as well as for practical reasons; it allows people to feel human and shows them that somebody cares about them.
We have also been looking at providing better communication – providing internet access and using things like What’s App groups to let people know what the situation is like ahead and what to expect. This lets people know where they are, how long they will be there and how long the journey takes. In general people are incredibly good at looking after themselves but they need the information to be able to do so.
How is this emergency different from others?
In this context all the normal assumptions have been thrown out of the window. This crisis has not been static so it’s really hard to plan and aid agencies, while being reasonably nimble, are not set up to change plans on a regular basis; especially when working with donor funding and agreements, it is incredibly difficult.
Much of the knowledge we have from traditional emergencies did not apply. We were assuming, for example, that people would want a shower. But people were so scared and nervous that if they moved away from the transport area then they might miss their buses. We were trying to provide things to people, but people didn’t necessarily want them at that time. It was really a case of providing the basics and things that were easy and not too cumbersome to carry, like wet wipes and bottled water that we wouldn’t normally do as a long term intervention.
How does this emergency fit into the wider global context?
I think generally a lot of people are at the end of their patience and the end of their hope. If you take the Syrian refugees in Jordan for example, support has been continually withdrawn and reduced to refugees over the last year or so. People there aren’t allowed to work to support themselves, and after 5 years of conflict they are running out of what savings they did have, so what are they going to do? As horrible as this journey is, and the uncertainty of it, you know that if you stay in Jordan you have NO future. People are proud and they have hope and they think they would perhaps have more of a chance to get ahead if they are out of that situation. I can completely understand why they would risk it – if you don’t think you have any other options you have to do something. I don’t support it by I understand it. Generally we need a more comprehensive policy looking at what is happening within each of the countries. That’s the only way the people making these ridiculously dangerous decisions and putting themselves and their families at risk can be understood.
Case study WASH support in Syria
Background and Summary
Since the start of the crisis in 2011, Syria has experienced a decrease in the availability of water due to widespread damage to water systems. This is particularly so in areas with a high influx of displaced persons where clean water is becoming more scarce. This has led to poor sanitary conditions, putting displaced communities, as well as those living in the host population, at increased risk of contracting water-borne diseases, especially in the summer heat.
The project, based in the North West of Syria, implemented by C
ARE International in partnership with Syria Relief, aimed to ensure that the Syrian IDPs and host households in four villages had access to clean water and appropriate sanitation as well as personal hygiene materials. Through well rehabilitation and generator installation, solid waste management and hygiene kit distribution and promotion, the project helped rehabilitate water systems and train members of the local communities to undertake repairs to build capacity for the future and ensure sustainability of the initiative.
The project was funded by the OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID) and implemented by Syria Relief in partnership with CARE International in Turkey.
CARE’s work in Syria
CARE has been operating in Syria since 2013 through projects related to lifesaving emergency assistance to people affected by the conflict, food and emergency supplies to families, psychosocial support to children and emergency medical equipment and support for women including sexual and reproductive health services and, primary health care. With several partners in Syria, CARE is also carrying out water and sanitation activities including the rehabilitation of water treatment plants and the distribution of water purification tablets to households.
In order to meet the project’s objective of contributing to meeting the critical needs of the displaced population in the conflict-affected areas, as well as to improve living standards of the community in general, the project undertook a number of activities as described below:
Provide access to adequate and sustained supply of safe water
Syria Relief installed a generator and a pump and
built a room for the new water station. A maintenance check was conducted before the water network began functioning.
Based on current population data the project delivered a minimum of 30 litres per person per day through the water scheme rehabilitation – above the basic SPHERE indicators for water quantity (see table) and a level culturally relevant for the northern Syrian context.
Number of litres as minimum survival for water
Survival needs: water intake (drinking and food)
2.5-3 litres per day
Depends on the climate and individual physiology
Basic hygiene practices
2-6 litres per day
Depends on social and cultural norms
Basic cooking needs
3-6 litres per day
Depends on food type and social and cultural norms
Total basic water needs
7.5-15 litres per day
Improve solid waste management practices and reduce solid waste hazards
CARE and Syria Relief purchased and distributed
cleaning kits and garbage bins to mobilise and provide tools for communal clean-up activities. The amount of garbage around the villages was also reduced through waste collection with a truck provided by the local council that worked twice a week in each of the four villages.
Meet immediate hygiene needs and improve hygiene practices
Hygiene and baby kits were purchased and distributed to
the most vulnerable people, according to criteria previously agreed with CARE (these included households with a pregnant or lactating woman, and with infant children). More than 20 items were part of these kits, including soap, washing powder, and female personal hygiene items.
750 hygiene kits, in addition to 68 baby kits were distributed to beneficiaries, with washing powder, shampoo and soap being the most preferred items in the kits. Distributions were undertaken successfully with beneficiaries reporting no security risks or difficulties in accessing the relief items distributed by Syria Relief.
CARE International in Turkey worked closely with Syria Relief to identify the needs of the communities and plan the response. CARE helped develop project timelines, a quality control framework and budgetary guidelines. CARE also participated in the follow-up and monitoring of the project, making sure the response was appropriate and timely reasonable and abided by the rules and regulations of CARE International at the same time.
The project made a significant contribution to the quality of life to 7,100 people, directly or indirectly affected by the conflict.
Sex/Age Disaggregated Data regarding the beneficiaries of the project
Number of households
Number of males
Number of females
Number of boys
Number of girls
Total number of beneficiaries
Based on an agreement with the local council, a committee to manage water and solid waste was established. A Committee of 12 representatives from four villages was created to administer the water station and waste collection. They all participated in a three-day training, in the presence of the Local Councils of all four villages where the project was implemented.
The new water system significantly increased the number of people who had access to the minimum Sphere standard of three litres of drinking water per day, and 15 litres of water per day for multi-use. More than 75% of the targeted population now consider piped water network as their main source of water, which is a positive outcome for safe water sourcing.
Meanwhile, the amount of solid waste reduced in the surrounding areas of the targeted villages and the municipality has undertaken regular solid waste collection as an alternative to the inhabitants throwing and leaving their garbage in the streets.
Both systems continued to operate independently through community commitment, and thus water pumping continued, though at fewer hours after the end of the project. The water user committee, responsible for setting up and managing the tariff system after they were trained, immediately implemented a tariff system for covering the cost of waste collection. Once the construction at the pumping station was completed, they expanded the tariff system to cover water network maintenance and operating costs.
The overall expenditure of the project was $102,701.
The project started in September 2015, and was initially planned for four months but was extended twice through March 2016, due to logistical and internal administrative constraints.
: Delays experienced in the implementation of the project in security, formalities, waivers for fuel delivery, emphasised the need for a coordination team within Syria to better supervise the project and ensure that supervision is not dependent on border/access issues but can also be conducted through the main Syria Relief offices at the field operational areas. Another difficulty was that there the legal structure / and authorities in the implementation areas were compromised due to the ongoing conflict, so it was challenging to address legal issues and paperwork through standard channels. The project was extended towards the end, as the implementing staff wanted to make sure that the project continued after they had left. They consequently trained community groups to manage the different tasks, which took more time but resulted in sustained operations.
: Staff implementing the project tried to be gender inclusive throughout the project, for example during the assessment process and in the targeting of IEC distributions, but found it very challenging to bring women into community group discussions. In order to partially address these challenges, Syria Relief recruited a female engineer in an attempt to increase women’s involvement at the community level. In future projects, efforts will be increased to include women’s participation in community WASH processes and committees.
At the end of the project only one third or around 400 HH out of the total number of beneficiaries were able to pay their fees due to limited financial means. In order to cover unaccounted water, the amount of the monthly collected fee was raised to 700 Syrian pounds per family per month (equivalent to US$1.5) for those who could afford to pay. It is predicted that as the situation improves more families will be able to pay their monthly fee and this will therefore decrease the average monthly contribution of each family.
Water usage and power over water availability
Some families used the water for irrigation, or took water from the main source, or overused the water which reduced the amount of water for others. Further, due to the tribal context or security reasons, some beneficiaries noted that they were scared of accessing water sources or that they weren’t receiving a fair allocation of water. To address these issues, CARE and SR organised some raising awareness sessions for the beneficiaries and local council. Syria Relief has already generated ideas for future projects, for example to support local control of water at village level, with water managed through local councils; increased community representation to ensure equitable access; and the installation of more taps in all villages.
Items distributed and materials utilised
: Almost four-fifths of the people surveyed after the hygiene kit distribution said they did not receive instructions on how to use the items. This feedback has been take into account and will be considered in future projects to reach people in need more effectively. Waste collection relied on a tractor that often broke down, requiring additional funds from the local council for general maintenance and inadequate alternative means for disposal like burning the waste on site. At the time of writing it is estimated that every families were able to contribute to 200 Syrian Pounds contribution to support garbage collectors fees and maintenance of equipment.
Overall, this project was successful and CARE is keen to further the approach pending additional funding. CARE Turkey is currently implementing a similar approach in the North East of Syria, with a separate local partner. Lessons learnt from the project were shared with WASH sector partners operating from Turkey at a coordination workshop focussed on water tariff schemes and municipal rehabilitation.
Photos courtesy of Syria Relief.
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