Climate variability is one of the many stresses faced by local communities. While it is not always the most important one, it should be considered in the design and implementation of local-level projects, particularly in communities characterized by climate-sensitive and/or natural resource-dependent livelihoods. The onset of longer-term climate change, which will compound existing climate-related stresses, provides an added incentive for addressing climate risk in a project.
Most projects, however, are not designed with an explicit consideration of climate risks and how they can affect local livelihoods. Even rarer are projects that take into account the longer-term implications of climate change and how project activities might (a) be affected by the impacts, and/or (b) influence local adaptive capacity. This second
point – understanding a project’s influence on local adaptive capacity – is the primary focus of CRiSTAL.

Community-level projects influence local vulnerability to climate risks and adaptive capacity. For example, projects that encourage dependence on a particular agricultural crop that may decrease in yield as the climate changes can increase local vulnerability. Conversely, projects that promote resilient crop species, diversified livelihood activities,
and risk reduction activities (such as seed banks, storage facilities, early warning systems) increase local adaptive capacity. Without a tool to assess the impacts of a project on some of the local determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity, it is
difficult for project planners and managers to design activities that foster adaptation to
climate change.

The Global Water Initiative (GWI) in East Africa is focused on the countries of Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The CRiSTAL and CVCA process is being done in all four countries and files pertaining to this process can be found here:

Summary of Climate Change Vulnerability Assessments using CVCA Across Four Countries


The Pangani River Basin Management Project is focused on strengthening Integrated Water Resource Management in the Pangani Basin and is working with GWI and the Climate Change and Development Project (CCDP) to mainstream climate change and to support the provision and governance of water resources to current and future generations. A summary report on these activities, as well as a complete report can be found below.


The Sustaining School Children's Access to Safe Water project is focusing on construction of sanitation infrastructure and hygiene promotion in Garissa District, Kenya . A summary report on these activities, as well as a complete report can be found below.


The Empowering Poor People to Manage Water project is focused on improved access to safe water and improved sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in northern Uganda where Internally Displaced Peoples have congregated and have limited access to these services due to pervasive poverty. A summary report on these activities, as well as a complete report can be found below.


The GWI project on Empowering Poor People to Manage Arid and Semi-arid Lands in Oromia Region, Ethiopia is focused on reducing vulnerability to water-related shocks in poor, rural communities as well as improving livelihoods in those same communities through Integrated Water Resource Management.

2-page summary report:

Full-length report:

Disaster Risk Reduction and WASH

DRR and WASH – Comprehensive guidance’ CARE Netherlands